What is the Internet of Things (IoT) dan Where It Is Used? – IoT can be described as a global infrastructure to meet people’s information needs, enabling sophisticated physical and virtual interconnection services based on existing and information and communication technology (ICT) developments.
The Definition of Internet of Things (IoT)
To understand the definition of Internet of Things can be seen from a combination of two words, “Internet” and “Things”. Where “Internet” itself is defined as a network of computers that use internet protocols (TCP / IP) that are used to communicate and share information within a certain scope. While “Things” can be interpreted as objects from the physical world taken through sensors which are then sent via the Internet. However, the results of the objects that have been sent still require a repeat presentation that is expected to be more easily understood by the stack holder.
To facilitate the storage and exchange of information models, Semantic Technology is needed. Therefore to realize the Internet of Things, 3 supporting components are needed is Internet, Things and Semantic.
In addition, Kevin Ashton, a technology visionary and co-creator of the Internet of Things, delivered the following definition in an e-book entitled “Making Sense of IoT”: “The notion of ‘Internet of Things’ is sensors that are connected to the internet and behave like the internet by making connections open at all times, and sharing data freely and allowing unexpected applications, so computers can understand the world around them and become part of human life. “The following figure illustrates the main concepts, technologies and standardization of the Internet paradigm of Things.
Physical objects (physical things) can be represented in the world of information (information world) through one or more virtual objects (virtual things). But virtual objects can stand alone without mapping (mapping) with physical objects. A device (device) is a device that has the ability to communicate and some additional capabilities (sensing, actuation, data capture, data storage and data processing). Where a device will later take the information needed and present it as information and send it for further processing. however, there are also devices that can directly process them based on received information and communication.
Internet of Things (IoT) Devices
Microcontroller is the brain or main parent of the system. On this microcontroller, all programs, logic, conditions are stored. Every data sent from the sensor will be processed by the microcontroller.
A sensor is something that is used to detect changes in the physical or chemical environment. Output variables from sensors are converted into electrical quantities called Transducers. At this time, the sensor has been made with a very small size with a nanometer order. This very small size is very easy to use and saves energy.
The actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. The actuator is activated using a mechanical arm which is usually driven by an electric motor, which is controlled by an automatic media controller programmed including a microcontroller. An actuator is an element that converts analog electrical quantities into other quantities such as rotation speed and is an electromagnetic device that produces movement power so that it can produce movement on the robot. To increase the mechanical power of this actuator, a gearbox system can be installed.
The actuator can do certain things after getting a command from the controller. For example in a light search robot, if there is light, the sensor will provide information to the controller which will then rule the actuator to move closer to the direction of the light source.
Internet of Things (IoT) Implementation
Io’s implementation of the machine is made so that human work becomes easier, initially the engine is made only to help humans and is operated manually, gradually the machine can run on its own (automatic), but in its development the use of machinery as a system will encounter obstacles if it is related to distance and time. With such a long distance, the machine will not be able to interact with other machines, to overcome this, the idea of the internet of things is applied where all machines with IP address identifiers can use the internet network as a communication medium (exchanging data).
a. IoT Implementation in the Security Field
In this sophisticated era, almost all devices installed in a complex infrastructure use the help of IoT devices to regulate the performance of existing systems. for example we often see there are many cameras on the street while the control room of the device is somewhere where, in a scenario like this to connect the control room and the camera an internet network is needed, the device in the control room and the camera itself uses IP addresses as unique identifiers so that between devices can exchange information.
b. IoT Implementation in the Property Sector
In a skyscraper there are certainly many computer-controlled devices such as escalators, building cooling systems, security systems, CCTV, administrative systems, electricity, water and gas installation and so on. To get information and monitor various systems installed in the building, there will be a lot of sensors that are made with certain functions, from these sensors which will collect and send to the computer to be processed and processed into integrated information about the condition of the building.
This building server can later be accessed from anywhere with the help of an internet connection. So a real estate company can monitor all the assets he has from a computer screen with the help of an internet connection. This is just a small example of IoT implementation. When the house has installed an integrated security system and controller and sensors for electricity, etc., and the condition of the house can be accessed and regulated through a computer or smartphone, it can be said that the house has become part of the internet of things.
c. IoT Implementation in the Medical field
Using RFID and NFC tags installed on medical devices to facilitate the management and maintenance of tools. It is enough to scan the information about the tool, install the heart rate sensor and other sensors in the patient connected to the control center to monitor the patient’s condition automatically and give a warning if something bad happens, the hospital payment system etc.
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