Explanation of Capacitors – Capacitors are one of the electronic components that can store electric charges. If you don’t understand what an electric charge is, please read the Explanation of Electricity. Capacitors is passive components, meaning that to work there is no need for energy from other components. The capasitor symbol is shown as shown below. In image (a) are symbols for non-polarizing capacitors and images (b) for capacitors that have polarization voltage (+ and -)
Generally capacitors are made of two sheets of conductor separated by an insulating material. Insulation materials (insulators) are materials that cannot conduct electricity. Example;
This insulation material on the capacitor is also called a dielectric material.
In electronic circuits, capacitors have the main functions, that is:
- Filter or Filter on the Power Supply
- Connect the Power line or Power Line Decoupling
- Hold the DC Voltage and Skip the AC Voltage
- Electric Energy Storage
- Signal filter
Type of the Capasitor
Based on the dielectric material, the capacitor is divided into:
- Electrolytic Capacitors
- Ceramic Capacitors
- Film Plastic Capacitors
- Variable Capacitors
- Tantalum Capacitors
- Mika Capacitors
Capacitor working principle
When the capacitor is connected to a DC voltage source, the DC electric charge will flow in and be stored in the capacitor. The ratio of the amount of electric charge that can be stored in the capacitor is called capacitance. Capacitors can store electrical charges for a long time after the DC voltage is released from the capacitor’s. Please be careful, it can be electrocuted, the higher the capacitance value, the higher the stun power.
This capacitance is measured by farad (taken from the name of its inventor, Michael Faraday), which is where 1 Farad Capacity is interpreted when a capacitor can store a current of 1A at a voltage of 1V. 1 Ampere is 1 Coloumb per second. Reread the Explanation of Electric Current to understand what is called couloumb. 1 Farad = 1 Coulomb / 1 Volt.
Following is the basic formula for calculating this capacitance:
C = Q / V or C (capacitance) = Q (electric charge) divided by V (voltage)
Q = V x C or Q (electric charge) = V (voltage) multiplied by C (capacitance)
V = Q / C or V (voltage) = Q (electric charge) divided by C (capacitance)
C = Capacitance (F)
Q = Coulomb (C)
V = Voltage (V)
Basically the unit of capacitance is Farad “F”, but in electronic components it is very rare to find capacitors that have a value of 1 Farad, however piko Farad, nano Farad, micro Farad and miliFarad. Please see the following for a comparison of values.
1 F = 1,000 mF
1 F = 1,000,000 uF
1 F = 1,000,000,000 nF
1 F = 1,000,000,000,000 pF
Please read here.
If you want converting, please use the capacitance calculator here. Hopefully useful, happy learning, happy work.