Ethics In The Information System – Ethical problems also get attention in the development and use of information systems. This problem was identified by Richard Mason in 1986 which included privacy, accuracy, property, and access, known as PAPA.
But what is the meaning of privacy, accuracy, property, and access? Here is the explanation.
Privacy is something that concerns an individual’s right to maintain personal information from access by other people who are not given permission to do so. An example of this privacy issue is in the case of a marketing manager who wants to observe e-mail that is owned by his employees because it is estimated they use more personal e-mail than e-mails of customers. Even if a manager with his power can do something like that, but he has violated the privacy of his subordinates.
Privacy is divided into physical privacy and information privacy (Alter, 2002).
Physical privacy is the right of a person to prevent someone who is not wanted by time, space and property as property rights. Information privacy is the right of individuals to determine when, how, and what information they want to communicate with other parties.
The use of information technology makes violations of privacy easier to occur. For example, e-mail users are often annoyed with unwanted e-mails and contain useless information such as junk or hoax e-mail.
In the United States, privacy issues are governed by privacy laws. In this regard, then:
- Records of data may not be used for other purposes which are not the original destination without the knowledge of the individual concerned.
- Each individual has the right to see his own data and correct records that concern him.
Accuracy is data collection of the right information. Accuracy of information data is a factor that must be fulfilled by an information system. Information inaccuracy can cause things that are not desirable, disappointing, and even harmful. For example, Edna Rismeller (Alter, 2002, p. 292) caused a mistake in removing the social security number. As a result, the insurance card could not be used even the government withdrew the pension check of $ 672 from his bank account. Another story was experienced by apartment tenants in America who for some reason had quarreled with apartment owners. Thus, there is a sign that it is not good in the database and this makes it difficult for them to get another apartment. Given the data in the information system becomes a material in decision making, its accuracy must really be considered.
Property is something that is owned by humans. Protection of property rights currently being perpetrated is intellectual property rights. In the United States, intellectual property is regulated through three mechanisms, namely copyright, patent, and trade secret.
The following is an explanation of copyright, patent, and trade secret:
- Copyright is a right guaranteed by the power of law that prohibits the duplication of intellectual property without seizing the holder. This right is easy to obtain and is given to the holder during the life of the creator plus 70 years.
- Patent is the most difficult form of protection of intellectual property because it is only given to innovative discoveries and is very useful. Patent law provides protection for 20 years.
- Trade secrets, trade secret laws protect intellectual property through a license or contract. In software licenses, someone who signs a contract agrees not to copy the software to be submitted to another person or sold.
Intellectual property problems are important factors that need to be considered in information systems to avoid demands from other parties in the future. The issue of intellectual property violations that is quite exciting has happened when there was a claim that the Windows system was emulating a Mac system. Likewise a dispute arose when other software emerged that resembled Lotus 123 spreadsheets. This case raises the question, “Does the display of power from a software need copyright protection?”.
With regard to intellectual problems, many problems have not been solved (Zwass, 1998), including:
- At what level can information be considered property?
- What must distinguish between one product and another product?
- Will the work generated by computers have human creators? If not, then what property rights does it protect?
The issue that is also rife up to now is the large number of illegal software publishers called software privacy. Several solutions to overcome this have been offered, but have not yet had a solution. Possible solutions can be used for companies that have limited funds to buy software that is classified as open source.
The focus of the problem of access is to provide access for all groups. Information technology is expected not to be an obstacle in accessing information for certain groups of people, but rather to support access for all parties.
Source : Ethics In The Information System – Robby Candra
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